Global Intellectual Property Center

South Africa

South Africa

Primary Sources

  • Border Management Authority Bill B-9/2016 (2016)
  • Broadcasting Act 1999 (Act No. 4 of 1999) (1999)
  • Companies Act 2008 (Act No. 71 of 2008) (2011)
  • Competition Act 1998 (Act No. 89 of 1998) (1998)
  • Competition Amendment Act 2009 (Act No. 1 of 2009) (2009)
  • Consumer Protection Act 2008 (Act No. 68 of 2008) (2008)
  • Copyright Act, 1978 (Act No. 98 of 1978, as amended up to Copyright Amendment Act 2002) (2002)
  • Copyright Regulations 1978 (as amended by GN 1375 in GG 9807 of June 28, 1985) (1985)
  • Counterfeit Goods Act 1997 (Act No. 37 of 1977) (1997)
  • Counterfeit Goods Act 1997 (Act No. 37 of 1997, as amended by Counterfeit Goods Amendment Act 2001) (2001)
  • Criminal Procedure Act 1977 (Act No. 51 of 1977, as amended up to Criminal Law (Forensic Procedures) Amendment Act 2010) (1977)
  • Department of Health, Medicines Control Counsil, Guidelines for the Registration of Medicines, Version 4, April 2008.
  • Department of Trade and Industry, Copyright Amendment Bill 2015, Invitation for the Public to Comment on the Copyright Amendment Bill 2015, 27.7.2015.
  • Designs Act 1993 (Act No. 195 of 1993, as amended by Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Act 1997) (1997)
  • Designs Regulations 1999 (1999)
  • Electronic Communications Act 2005 (Act No. 36 of 2005) (2006)
  • Films and Publications Act 1996 (Act No. 65 of 1996) (1996)
  • Films and Publications Amendment Act 2009 (Act No. 3 of 2009) (2009)
  • High Court of South Africa, Gauteng Division, Johannesburg, Case No. 08/20980, MAKATE NKOSANA KENNETH v. VODACOM (PTY) LIMITED, 1.7.2014.
  • High Court of South Africa, Gauteng Division, Johannesburg, Case No. 21704, Strike Productions (PTY) Ltd. v. Bon View Trading (PTY) Ltd. And others, 20.1.2011.
  • High Court of South Africa, Gauteng Division, Johannesburg, Case No. 31575/2013, Moneyweb (PTY) Limited v. Media 24 Limited and Fadia Salie, 5.5.2016.
  • High Court of South Africa, Gauteng Division, Johannesburg, Case No. 39872/2013, Aloe Vera of America Inc. v. Tiasho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 14.3.2014.
  • Human Sciences Research Council Act 2008 (Act No. 17 of 2008) (2008)
  • Human Sciences Research Council Act 2008 (Act No. 17 of 2008) (2010)
  • Independent Communications Authority of South Africa Act 2000 (Act No. 13 of 2000, as amended up to Independent Communications Authority of South Africa Amendment Act 2006) (2000)
  • Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Act 1997 (Act No. 38 of 1997) (1997)
  • Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Act 2013 (Act No. 28 of 2013) (2013)
  • Intellectual Property Laws Rationalisation Act 1996 (Act No. 107 of 1996) (1996)
  • Intellectual Property Rights from Publicly Financed Research and Development Act 2008 (Act No. 51 of 2008) (2008)
  • International Trade Administration Act 2002 (Act No.71 of 2002) (2002)
  • Labor Relations Act 1995 (Act No. 66 of 1995, as amended up to Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act 2004) (2004)
  • Medicines and Related Substances Act 1965 (Act No. 101 of 1965, as amended 2002) (2002)
  • Medicines and Related Substances Amendment Act (Act No. 59 of 2002) (2002)
  • Merchandise Marks Act 1941 (Act No. 17 of 1941, as amended up to Merchandise Marks Amendment Act 2002) (2003)
  • National Advisory Council on Innovation Act 1997 (Act No. 55 of 1997) (1997)
  • Patent Regulations, No. R6247 of December 15, 1978, as amended by Government Notice No. R1181 in Government Gazette No. 29413 of 1 December 2006 (2006)
  • Patents Act 1978 (Act No. 57 of 1978, as amended up to Patents Amendment Act 2002) (2003)
  • Patents Amendment Act 2005 (Act No. 20 of 2005) (2005)
  • Patents Examination Regulations 2003 (2003)
  • Performers’ Protection Act 1967 (Act No. 11 of 1967) (1967)
  • Performers’ Protection Amendment Act 2002 (2002)
  • Registration of Copyright in Cinematograph Films Act 1977 (Act No. 62 of 1977) (1977)
  • Registration of Copyright in Cinematograph Films Regulations 1980 (1980)
  • Regulations No. R.223 of March 9, 2001 relating to the Promotion of Access to Information Act 2000 (Act No. 2 of 2000) (2001)
  • Regulations No. R.675 of 2010 of the Intellectual Property Rights from Publicly Financed Research and Development Act 2008 (2010)
  • Regulations on the Establishment of Collecting Societies in the Music Industry (2006)
  • Regulations relating to the Labeling, Advertising and Sale of Tobacco Products de 1994 (GN 2063 in GG 16111 of December 2, 1994, as amended by GN R1148 in GG 16588 of August 4, 1995) (1995)
  • Republic of South Africa, Department of Public Service & Administration, Policy on Free and Open Source Software Use for South African Government, August 2006.
  • Science and Technology Laws Amendment Act 2011 (Act No. 16 of 2011) (2011)
  • Staatskoerant, Department of Trade and Industry, General Notice 918 of 2013, Invitation for the Public to Comment on the National Policy on Intellectual Property 2013, No. 36816, 4 September 2013.
  • Staatskoerant, Government Gazette No.530, Independent Communications Authority of South Africa, Review of Regulation on South African Local Content: Television and Radio, Position Paper, 18.6.2015.
  • Standards Act 2008 (Act No. 8 of 2008) (2008)
  • ‘Stem Van Suid-Afrika’ Copyright Act 1959 (1959)
  • Technology Innovation Agency Act 2008 (Act No. 26 of 2008) (2008)
  • The National Library of South Africa Act 1998 (Act No. 92 of 1998) (1998)
  • The Scientific Research Council Act 1988 (Act No. 46 of 1988, as amended by Act No. 71 of 1990) (1990)
  • Tobacco Products Control Act 1993 (Act No. 83 of 1993, as amended up to Tobacco Products Control Amendment Act 2008) (1994)
  • Trade Marks Act 1993 (Act No. 194 of 1993) (1993)
  • Trade Marks Regulations 1995 (GN R578 of April 21, 1995, as amended by GN R1180 of December 1, 2006) (2006)

Secondary Sources

  • Adams & Adams, Life sciences in South Africa: overview, Practical Law, Thomson Reuters, 1.5.2013.
  • Adams & Adams, News, Roundtable Discussions: Substantive Search and Examination, 25.2.2015.
  • AIPPI (2005). “Enforcement of IP Rights”, Q.185, South Africa, Esmé du Plessis and Llewellyn Parker.
  • AIPPI (2005). “Limitations on exclusive IP Rights by competition law”, Q.187, South Africa, Dario TANZIANI and Llewellyn PARKER.
  • AIPPI (2005). “Punitive damages as a contentious issue of IP Rights”, Q.186, South Africa, Hans H. HAHN.
  • AIPPI (2006). “Amendment of patent claims after grant (in court and administrative proceedings, including re-examination proceedings requested by third parties)”, Q.189, South Africa, Hans H. HAHN, Janusz LUTEREK and HUGH MOUBRAY.
  • AIPPI (2006). “Contracts regarding Intellectual Property Rights (assignments and licenses) and third parties”, Q.190, South Africa, the South African Group.
  • AIPPI (2008). “The impact of public health issues on exclusive patent rights”, Q.202, South Africa, Esmé DU PLESSIS.
  • AIPPI (2010). “Liability for contributory infringement of IPRs – certain aspects of patent infringement”, Q.204P, South Africa, Alexis Apostolidis, 29 March 2010.
  • AIPPI (2010). “Protection against the dilution of a trademark”, Q.214, South Africa, Wim Alberts, 8 April 2010.
  • AIPPI (2011). “Exceptions to copyright protection and the permitted uses of copyright works in the hi-tech and digital sectors”, Q.216B, South Africa, Elaine de Beer, Johnny Fiandeiro, 1 June 2011.
  • AIPPI (2013). “Relevant public for determining the degree of recognition of famous marks, well-known marks and marks with reputation”, Q.234, South Africa, Roshana KELBRICK, 8 May 2013.
  • AIPPI (2013). “Relief in IP proceedings other than injunctions or damages”, Q.236, South Africa, Russell Bagnall, Esmé du Plessis , 14 June 2013.
  • AIPPI (2014). “Patents: Prior User Rights”, Q.228, South Africa, The South African Group, May 6, 2014.
  • AIPPI (2015). “Damages for infringement, counterfeiting and piracy of trademarks”, Q.203, South Africa, Wim ALBERTS and Llewellyn PARKER.
  • AIPPI (2015). “Liability for contributory infringement of IPRs”, Q.204, South Africa, Alexis APOSTOLIDIS, Debbie MARRIOTT and Russel BAGNALL.
  • AIPPI (2015). “Limitations of the Trademark Protection”, Q.195, South Africa, Esmé du PLESSIS and MARIËTTE VILJOEN (assisted by Dale HEALY).
  • AIPPI (2015). “Second medical use or indication claims”, Q.238, South Africa, Ursula BRUNETTI, 1 April 2014.
  • AIPPI (2016). “Acquiescence (tolerance) to infringement of Intellectual Property Rights”, Q.192, South Africa, Gavin MARRIOTT and Llewellyn PARKER.
  • Akpotaire, U. B. (2010). HIV and AIDS in Africa: Compulsory Licensing under TRIPS and Doha Declaration, SSRN, 30.9.2010.
  • Alberts, R. W., (2009). “The relevance of prior use in trade mark conflicts”, Thesis, University of South Africa.
  • American University Washington College of Law, Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property, Comments on the Copyright Amendment Bill 2015, March 3, 2015.
  • Baker & McKenzie International, Anti-Counterfeiting Intermediaries: Insights From a Global Survey on Responsibility of Participants in the Supply Chain of Infringing Goods, Dallas, Texas, 9.3.2011.
  • Baker, B. K. (2010). “Overview of Data Protection, Data Exclusivity and Patent/Registration Linkage”, UKZN IPR/A2M 2010.
  • BDLive, Landmark court battle over online copyright, Franny Rabkin, 8.3.2015.
  • BDLive, Wary investors wound state’s drug plans, Tamar Kahn and Linda Ensor, 17.2.2015.
  • BizNews.com, Moneyweb v Fin24: Show me that it’s original, 7.5.2015
  • Bloomberg Business, ANC Seeks South Africa Oil Law Clarity to Ease Energy Crisis, Andre Janse Van Vuuren and Rene Vollgraaff, 1.9.2015.
  • Bowman Gilfillan, Software Patents In South Africa – To Be Or Not To Be?, Elaine de Beer, 20.6.2011.
  • Business Software Alliance (2012). Shadow Market: BSA Global Software Piracy Study 2011, Ninth edition, May 2012.
  • Business Software Alliance (BSA), “Country Report: South Africa” in Global Cloud Computing Scoreboard 2016.
  • BusinessTech, South Africa broadband vs the world, 23.9.2014.
  • Center for Strategic and International Studies, Open Source Policy survey: Government Open Source Policies, 7th Update, March 2010.
  • Comninos, A. (2012). “Intermediary Liability in Africa”, Research Papers, No. 3, commissioned by the Association for Progressive Communications, October 2012.
  • Conroy, M. (2006). “A Comparative Study of Technological Protection Measures in Copyright Law”, Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Laws at the University of South Africa, November 2006.
  • Department of Trade and Industry, Designation of Industries, Sectors & Products for Local Procurement in the Public Sector, Portfolio Committee on Trade & Industry, 2.3.2016.
  • Department of Trade and Industry, Industrial Policy Action Plan IPAP 2016/17 – 2018/19, 2016.
  • Department of Trade and Industry, National Industrial Participation Programme (NIPP), Industrial Procurement (Accessed October 2015).
  • Department of Trade and Industry, Overview: The South African IP Policy – TAC & MSF, 23 October 2012.
  • ENSafrica, Plain packaging, Alicia Castleman, Lexology, 17.4.2013.
  • FiercePharma, South Africa writes IP policy making it harder to get drug patents, Eric Palmer, 11.9.2013.
  • FilmContact.com, Piracy case a landmark in SA, 17.3.2014.
  • Freedom House, (2013). “Country Profile: South Africa” in Freedom on the Net 2013 Report.
  • Freehills Patent Attorneys, Differences between Australian and South African patent practice and law, Christel Wolmarans, 14.5.2013.
  • Geo-Information Society of South Africa, How Free and Open Source Software and Open Content (FOSS/OC) is Linked to Development, Appendix D to Policy on Free and Open Source Software Use for South African Government, 2006.
  • Government of South Africa, Medium-Term Startegic Framework 2014-2019.
  • Hahn & Hahn Inc., South Africa Patent Litigation, Patent Litigation Jurisdictional Comparisons, European Lawyer REFERENCE series, Ed. Thierry Calame and Massimo Sterpi, 2006.
  • Hahn & Hahn Inc.,Patent litigation in South Africa: overview, Practical Law, Thomson Reuters, 1.1.2016.
  • htxt.africa, Four Corners piracy sentence “draconian”, 17.4.2014.
  • In-PharmaTechnologist.com, South Africa will only buy certain drugs if produced locally, 19.4.2012.
  • Intellectual Property Watch, Comments Received To South Africa’s Process For New IP Policy, Linda Daniels, 18.11.2013.
  • Intellectual Property Watch, Law Boosts Awareness, Patents From Research Institutions In South Africa, 12.4.2015.
  • Intellectual Property Watch, South African Government Staves Off Critics With IP Consultative Framework, Linda Daniels, 27.7.2016.
  • International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA), 2007 Special 301 Report on Copyright Protection and Enforcement: South Africa, 12 February 2007.
  • Internet Service Providers Association, Take-Down Guide, How to request a Take-Down Notice (Accessed May 2013).
  • IOL Business, Crucial Agoa meeting on Monday, Peter Fabricius, 12.9.2015.
  • IPENSight, SA court fails to give Nestle a break, 22.1.2014.
  • Jacobson Attorneys, Misleading advertising in South Africa, 13.7.2012.
  • King & Wood Mallesons, A Review of Local Content Regulations in the Upstream Oil & Gas Sector in Africa, 16.3.2015.
  • Make Games South Africa, Industry Survey – 2015.
  • Microsoft South Africa, News and Press Releases, Lowering the boom on South Africa software pirates, 12.3.2014.
  • Ministry of Trade and Industry, International Trade and Economic Development Department, Intellectual Property Consultative Framework As approved by Cabinet, 6 July 2016.
  • Ministry of Trade and Industry, The National Industrial Participation (NIP) Revised Guidelines 2013
  • MWEB Gamezone, South African game developers weigh in on piracy, April 2015.
  • Mybroadband.co.za, Are you an online pirate?, 28.7.2013.
  • Mybroadband.co.za, Copyright Amendment Bill approved by SA Cabinet, 25.6.2015.
  • Mybroadband.co.za, Local websites in danger, Rudolph Muller, 12.11.2008
  • Mybroadband.co.za, What South African pirates download, 30.3.2015.
  • Mybroadband.co.za, Why South Africans pirate, 30.7.2013.
  • News24, Counterfeit industry grows, tops R360bn, 31.8.2014.
  • Norton Rose Fulbright, Copying– where do you draw the line?, 18.9.2015.
  • Norton Rose South Africa (2012). “South Africa” in World Trademark Review Yearbook 2012, pp. 255-262.
  • Pharmaceutical Technology, South Africa: the long road to state-owned pharma manufacturing, 31.8.2015.
  • Politicsweb.co.za, Why patent rights should be respected, Jasson Urbach, 12.11.2014.
  • Primo, N. and Lloyd, L. (2011). “Chapter 3: South Africa” in Media Piracy in Emerging Economies, Ed. Joe Karaganis, Social Science Research Council, March 2011, pp.99-147.
  • Print Industries Cluster Council, PICC Report on Intellectual Property Rights in the Print Industry Sector, May 2004.
  • Publishers’ Association of South Africa, Annual Book of Industry Survey 2011, Willem Struik & Beth le Roux, University of Pretoria, 2012.
  • Reuters.com, South Africa plans plain cigarette packaging by 2015: minister, Wendell Roelf, 24.7.2014.
  • SABS Design Institute, Design Registration, 2012.
  • SABS, Local Content Verification, Portfolio Committee on Trade & Industry, 18.11.2014.
  • Schultz, M. F. and Lippoldt, D. C. (2014). Approaches to Protection of Undisclosed Information (Trade Secrets) – Background Paper, OECD Trade Policy Paper No. 162, TAD/TC/WP(2013)21/FINAL, 22.1.2014.
  • Shay, R. M. (2012). “Users’ Entitlements under the Fair Dealing Exceptions to Copyright”, Thesis for the degree of Master of Laws at Stellenbosch University, November 2012.
  • Smit & Van Wyk, How to Patent Computer Programs or Software, Patents, 2013.
  • Spoor & Fisher South Africa: Can You Keep A Secret?, Mondaq, 7.6.2012.
  • Spoor & Fisher, Patenting Computer Software – Related and Business Method Inventions; Background to Patents, 26.2.2007.
  • Spoor & Fisher, Puma wins groundbreaking victory for brands and brand holders, 13.1.2011.
  • Spoor & Fisher, Supreme Court interdicts Pepkor from copying Adidas’ famous three stripe mark, 13.3.2013.
  • Spoor & Fisher, The South African draft IP Policy: Patents and Health in South Africa, 10.3.2014.
  • Spoor.com, South Africa: Design Requirements
  • TechCentral, Lessons from Moneyweb vs Fin24, Vicky Stilwell, 10.5.2016.
  • The Media Online, Act aims to curb trade in fake goods and brands, Irshaad Moidheen and Chris de Beer, 6.62012.
  • Times Live, Court lays out guidelines on ‘fair dealing’ in Moneyweb/Fin24 case, 6.5.2016.
  • Times Live, Gigaba seeks to appease fears about Border Management Agency’s powers, 13.9.2016.
  • Visser, C. (2006). “Technological Protection Measures: South Africa Goes Overboard. Overbroad.”, The Southern African Journal of Information and Communication, Issue 7, pp. 54-63.
  • Webb, A. (2009). “Where is FOSS today?”, Presented at the WITS FOSS Awareness Event, State Information Technology Agency, September 2009.
  • WIPO, Committee on Development and Intellectual Property (CDIP), Study on Patents and the Public Domain, CDIP/8/INF/3 REV. 2 , Eighth Session, Geneva, November 14-18, 2011.
  • WIPO, Statistical Country Profiles: South Africa (accessed March 2013).